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  • 10
    Apprehension of child alleged to be in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
    1. As soon as a child alleged to be in conflict with law is apprehended by the police, such child shall be placed under the charge of the special juvenile police unit or the designated child welfare police officer, who shall produce the child before the Board without any loss of time but within a period of twenty-four hours of apprehending the child excluding the time necessary for the journey, from the place where such child was apprehended: Provided that in no case, a child alleged to be in conflict with law shall be placed in a police lockup or lodged in a jail.
    2. The State Government shall make rules consistent with this Act,—
      1. to provide for persons through whom (including registered voluntary or nongovernmental organisations) any child alleged to be in conflict with law may be produced before the Board;
      2. to provide for the manner in which the child alleged to be in conflict with law may be sent to an observation home or place of safety, as the case may be
  • 11
    Role of person in whose charge child in conflict with law is placed
    JJA-2015
  • Any person in whose charge a child in conflict with law is placed, shall while the order is in force, have responsibility of the said child, as if the said person was the child’s parent and responsible for the child’s maintenance:
    Provided that the child shall continue in such person’s charge for the period stated by the Board, notwithstanding that the said child is claimed by the parents or any other person except when the Board is of the opinion that the parent or any other person are fit to exercise charge over such child.
  • 12
    Bail to a person who is apparently a child alleged to be in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
    1. When any person, who is apparently a child and is alleged to have committed a bailable or non-bailable offence, is apprehended or detained by the police or appears or brought before a Board, such person shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 or in any other law for the time being in force, be released on bail with or without surety or placed under the supervision of a probation officer or under the care of any fit person:
      Provided that such person shall not be so released if there appears reasonable grounds for believing that the release is likely to bring that person into association with any known criminal or expose the said person to moral, physical or psychological danger or the person’s release would defeat the ends of justice, and the Board shall record the reasons for denying the bail and circumstances that led to such a decision.
    2. When such person having been apprehended is not released on bail under subsection (1) by the officer-in-charge of the police station, such officer shall cause the person to be kept only in an observation home in such manner as may be prescribed until the person can be brought before a Board.
    3. When such person is not released on bail under sub-section (1) by the Board, it shall make an order sending him to an observation home or a place of safety, as the case may be, for such period during the pendency of the inquiry regarding the person, as may be specified in the order.
    4. When a child in conflict with law is unable to fulfil the conditions of bail order within seven days of the bail order, such child shall be produced before the Board for modification of the conditions of bail.
  • 13
    Information to parents, guardian or probation officer
    JJA-2015
    1. Where a child alleged to be in conflict with law is apprehended, the officer designated as Child Welfare Police Officer of the police station, or the special juvenile police unit to which such child is brought, shall, as soon as possible after apprehending the child, inform —
      1. the parent or guardian of such child, if they can be found, and direct them to be present at the Board before which the child is produced; and
      2. the probation officer, or if no probation officer is available, a Child Welfare Officer, for preparation and submission within two weeks to the Board, a social investigation report containing information regarding the antecedents and family background of the child and other material circumstances likely to be of assistance to the Board for making the inquiry.
    2. Where a child is released on bail, the probation officer or the Child Welfare Officer shall be informed by the Board.
  • 14
    Inquiry by Board regarding child in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
    1. Where a child alleged to be in conflict with law is produced before Board, the Board shall hold an inquiry in accordance with the provisions of this Act and may pass such orders in relation to such child as it deems fit under sections 17 and 18 of this Act.
    2. The inquiry under this section shall be completed within a period of four months from the date of first production of the child before the Board, unless the period is extended, for a maximum period of two more months by the Board, having regard to the circumstances of the case and after recording the reasons in writing for such extension.
    3. A preliminary assessment in case of heinous offences under section 15 shall be disposed of by the Board within a period of three months from the date of first production of the child before the Board.
    4. If inquiry by the Board under sub-section (2) for petty offences remains inconclusive even after the extended period, the proceedings shall stand terminated: Provided that for serious or heinous offences, in case the Board requires further extension of time for completion of inquiry, the same shall be granted by the Chief Judicial Magistrate or, as the case may be, the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, for reasons to be recorded in writing.
    5. The Board shall take the following steps to ensure fair and speedy inquiry, namely:—
      1. at the time of initiating the inquiry, the Board shall satisfy itself that the child in conflict with law has not been subjected to any ill-treatment by the police or by any other person, including a lawyer or probation officer and take corrective steps in case of such ill-treatment;
      2. in all cases under the Act, the proceedings shall be conducted in simple manner as possible and care shall be taken to ensure that the child, against whom the proceedings have been instituted, is given child-friendly atmosphere during the proceedings;
      3. every child brought before the Board shall be given the opportunity of being heard and participate in the inquiry;
      4. cases of petty offences, shall be disposed of by the Board through summary proceedings, as per the procedure prescribed under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973;
      5. inquiry of serious offences shall be disposed of by the Board, by following the procedure, for trial in summons cases under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
      6. inquiry of heinous offences,—
        1. for child below the age of sixteen years as on the date of commission of an offence shall be disposed of by the Board under clause (e);
        2. for child above the age of sixteen years as on the date of commission of an offence shall be dealt with in the manner prescribed under section 15.
  • 15
    Preliminary assessment into heinous offences by Board
    JJA-2015
    1. In case of a heinous offence alleged to have been committed by a child, who has completed or is above the age of sixteen years, the Board shall conduct a preliminary assessment with regard to his mental and physical capacity to commit such offence, ability to understand the consequences of the offence and the circumustances in which he allegedly committed the offence, and may pass an order in accordance with the provisions of subsection (3) of section 18:
      Provided that for such an assessment, the Board may take the assistance of experienced psychologists or psycho-social workers or other experts.
      Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, it is clarified that preliminary assessment is not a trial, but is to assess the capacity of such child to commit and understand the consequences of the alleged offence.
    2. Where the Board is satisfied on preliminary assessment that the matter should be disposed of by the Board, then the Board shall follow the procedure, as far as may be, for trial in summons case under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973:
      Provided that the order of the Board to dispose of the matter shall be applealable under sub-section (2) of section 101:
      Provided further that the assessment under this section shall be completed within the period specified in section 14.
  • 16
    Review of pendency of inquiry
    JJA-2015
    1. The Chief Judicial Magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall review the pendency of cases of the Board once in every three months, and shall direct the Board to increase the frequency of its sittings or may recommend the constitution of additional Boards.
    2. The number of cases pending before the Board, duration of such pendency, nature of pendency and reasons thereof shall be reviewed in every six months by a high level committee consisting of the Executive Chairperson of the State Legal Services Authority, who shall be the Chairperson, the Home Secretary, the Secretary responsible for the implementation of this Act in the State and a representative from a voluntary or nongovernmental organisation to be nominated by the Chairperson.
    3. The information of such pendency shall also be furnished by the Board to the Chief Judicial Magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and the District Magistrate on quarterly basis in such form as may be prescribed by the State Government.
  • 17
    Orders regarding a child not found to be in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
    1. Where a Board is satisfied on inquiry that the child brought before it has not committed any offence, then notwithstanding anything contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, the Board shall pass order to that effect.
    2. In case it appears to the Board that the child referred to in sub-section (1) is in need of care and protection, it may refer the child to the Committee with appropriate directions.
  • 18
    Orders regarding child found to be in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
    1. Where a Board is satisfied on inquiry that a child irrespective of age has committed a petty offence, or a serious offence, or a child below the age of sixteen years has committed a heinous offence, then, notwithstanding anything contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, and based on the nature of offence, specific need for supervision or intervention, circumstances as brought out in the social investigation report and past conduct of the child, the Board may, if it so thinks fit,—
      1. allow the child to go home after advice or admonition by following appropriate inquiry and counselling to such child and to his parents or the guardian;
      2. direct the child to participate in group counselling and similar activities;
      3. order the child to perform community service under the supervision of an organisation or institution, or a specified person, persons or group of persons identified by the Board;
      4. order the child or parents or the guardian of the child to pay fine: Provided that, in case the child is working, it may be ensured that the provisions of any labour law for the time being in force are not violated;
      5. direct the child to be released on probation of good conduct and placed under the care of any parent, guardian or fit person, on such parent, guardian or fit person executing a bond, with or without surety, as the Board may require, for the good behaviour and child’s well-being for any period not exceeding three years;
      6. direct the child to be released on probation of good conduct and placed under the care and supervision of any fit facility for ensuring the good behaviour and child’s well-being for any period not exceeding three years;
      7. direct the child to be sent to a special home, for such period, not exceeding three years, as it thinks fit, for providing reformative services including education, skill development, counselling, behaviour modification therapy, and psychiatric support during the period of stay in the special home:
        Provided that if the conduct and behaviour of the child has been such that, it would not be in the child’s interest, or in the interest of other children housed in a special home, the Board may send such child to the place of safety.
    2. If an order is passed under clauses (a) to (g) of sub-section (1), the Board may, in addition pass orders to—
      1. attend school; or
      2. attend a vocational training centre; or
      3. attend a therapeutic centre; or
      4. prohibit the child from visiting, frequenting or appearing at a specified place;or
      5. undergo a de-addiction programme.
    3. Where the Board after preliminary assessment under section 15 pass an order that there is a need for trial of the said child as an adult, then the Board may order transfer of the trial of the case to the Children’s Court having jurisdiction to try such offences.
  • 19
    Powers of Children's Court
    JJA-2015
    1. After the receipt of preliminary assessment from the Board under section 15,the Children´s Court may decide that—
      1. there is a need for trial of the child as an adult as per the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 and pass appropriate orders after trial subject to the provisions of this section and section 21, considering the special needs of the child, the tenets of fair trial and maintaining a child friendly atmosphere;
      2. there is no need for trial of the child as an adult and may conduct an inquiry as a Board and pass appropriate orders in accordance with the provisions of section 18.
    2. The Children’s Court shall ensure that the final order, with regard to a child in conflict with law, shall include an individual care plan for the rehabilitation of child, including follow up by the probation officer or the District Child Protection Unit or a social worker.
    3. The Children’s Court shall ensure that the child who is found to be in conflict with law is sent to a place of safety till he attains the age of twenty-one years and thereafter, the person shall be transferred to a jail:
      Provided that the reformative services including educational services, skill development, alternative therapy such as counselling, behaviour modification therapy, and psychiatric support shall be provided to the child during the period of his stay in the place of safety.
    4. The Children’s Court shall ensure that there is a periodic follow up report every year by the probation officer or the District Child Protection Unit or a social worker, as required, to evaluate the progress of the child in the place of safety and to ensure that there is no ill-treatment to the child in any form.
    5. The reports under sub-section (4) shall be forwarded to the Children´s Court for record and follow up, as may be required.
  • 20
    Child attained age of twenty-one years and yet to complete prescribed term of stay in place of safety
    JJA-2015
    1. When the child in conflict with the law attains the age of twenty-one years and is yet to complete the term of stay, the Children´s Court shall provide for a follow up by the probation officer or the District Child Protection Unit or a social worker or by itself, as required, to evaluate if such child has undergone reformative changes and if the child can be a contributing member of the society and for this purpose the progress records of the child under sub-section (4) of section 19, along with evaluation of relevant experts are to be taken into consideration.
    2. After the completion of the procedure specified under sub-section (1), the Children’s Court may—
      1. decide to release the child on such conditions as it deems fit which includes appointment of a monitoring authority for the remainder of the prescribed term of stay;
      2. decide that the child shall complete the remainder of his term in a jail: Provided that each State Government shall maintain a list of monitoring authorities and monitoring procedures as may be prescribed.
  • 21
    Order that may not be passed against a child in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
  • No child in conflict with law shall be sentenced to death or for life imprisonment without the possibility of release, for any such offence, either under the provisions of this Act or under the provisions of the Indian Penal Code or any other law for the time being in force.
  • 22
    Proceeding under Chapter VIII of the Code of Criminal Procedure not to apply against child
    JJA-2015
  • Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, or any preventive detention law for the time being in force, no proceeding shall be instituted and no order shall be passed against any child under Chapter VIII of the said Code.
  • 23
    No joint proceedings of child in conflict with law and person not a child
    JJA-2015
    1. Notwithstanding anything contained in section 223 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 or in any other law for the time being in force, there shall be no joint proceedings of a child alleged to be in conflict with law, with a person who is not a child.
    2. If during the inquiry by the Board or by the Children’s Court, the person alleged to be in conflict with law is found that he is not a child, such person shall not be tried along with a child.
  • 24
    Removal of disqualification on the findings of an offence
    JJA-2015
    1. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, a child who has committed an offence and has been dealt with under the provisions of this Act shall not suffer disqualification, if any, attached to a conviction of an offence under such law:
      Provided that in case of a child who has completed or is above the age of sixteen years and is found to be in conflict with law by the Children’s Court under clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 19, the provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply.
    2. The Board shall make an order directing the Police, or by the Children’s court to its own registry that the relevant records of such conviction shall be destroyed after the expiry of the period of appeal or, as the case may be, a reasonable period as may be prescribed:
      Provided that in case of a heinous offence where the child is found to be in conflict with law under clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 19, the relevant records of conviction of such child shall be retained by the Children’s Court.
  • 25
    Special provision in respect of pending cases
    JJA-2015
  • Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, all proceedings in respect of a child alleged or found to be in conflict with law pending before any Board or court on the date of commencement of this Act, shall be continued in that Board or court as if this Act had not been enacted.
  • 26
    Provision with respect of run away child in conflict with law
    JJA-2015
    1. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, any police officer may take charge of a child in conflict with law who has run away from a special home or an observation home or a place of safety or from the care of a person or institution under whom the child was placed under this Act.
    2. The child referred to in sub-section (1) shall be produced, within twenty-four hours, preferably before the Board which passed the original order in respect of that child, if possible, or to the nearest Board where the child is found.
    3. The Board shall ascertain the reasons for the child having run away and pass appropriate orders for the child to be sent back either to the institution or person from whose custody the child had run away or any other similar place or person, as the Board may deem fit:
      Provided that the Board may also give additional directions regarding any special steps that may be deemed necessary, for the best interest of the child.
    4. No additional proceeding shall be instituted in respect of such child.
1 Short title, extent, commencement and application
2 Definitions
3 General principles to be followed in administration of Act
4 Juvenile Justice Board
5 Placement of person, who cease to be a child during process of inquiry
6 Placement of persons, who committed an offence, when person was below the age of eighteen years
7 Procedure in relation to Board
8 Powers, functions and responsibilities of the Board
9 Procedure to be followed by a Magistrate who has not been empowered under this Act
10 Apprehension of child alleged to be in conflict with law
11 Role of person in whose charge child in conflict with law is placed
12 Bail to a person who is apparently a child alleged to be in conflict with law
13 Information to parents, guardian or probation officer
14 Inquiry by Board regarding child in conflict with law
15 Preliminary assessment into heinous offences by Board
16 Review of pendency of inquiry
17 Orders regarding a child not found to be in conflict with law
18 Orders regarding child found to be in conflict with law
19 Powers of Children's Court
20 Child attained age of twenty-one years and yet to complete prescribed term of stay in place of safety
21 Order that may not be passed against a child in conflict with law
22 Proceeding under Chapter VIII of the Code of Criminal Procedure not to apply against child
23 No joint proceedings of child in conflict with law and person not a child
24 Removal of disqualification on the findings of an offence
25 Special provision in respect of pending cases
26 Provision with respect of run away child in conflict with law
27 Child Welfare Committee
28 Procedure in relation to Committee
29 Powers of Committee
30 Functions and responsibilities of Committee
31 Production before Committee
32 Mandatory reporting regarding a child found separated from guardian
33 Offence of nonreporting
34 Penalty for nonreporting
35 Surrender of children
36 Inquiry
37 Orders passed regarding a child in need of care and protection
38 Procedure for declaring a child legally free for adoption
39 Process of rehabilitation and social reintegration
40 Restoration of child in need of care and protection
41 Registration of child care institutions
42 Penalty for nonregistration of child care institutions
43 Open shelter
44 Foster care
45 Sponsorship
46 After care of children leaving child care institution
47 Observation homes
48 Special homes
49 Place of safety
50 Children’s Home
51 Fit facility
52 Fit person
53 Rehabilitation and reintegration services in institutions registered under this Act and management thereof
54 Inspection of institutions registered under this Act
55 Evaluation of functioning of structures
56 Adoption
57 Eligibility of prospective adoptive parents
58 Procedure for adoption by Indian prospective adoptive parents living in India
59 Procedure for inter-country adoption of an orphan or abandoned or surrendered child
60 Procedure for inter-country relative adoption
61 Court procedure and penalty against payment in consideration of adoption
62 Additional procedural requirements and documentation
63 Effect of adoption
64 Reporting of adoption
65 Specialised Adoption Agencies
66 Adoption of children residing in institutions not registered as adoption agencies
67 State Adoption Resource Agency
68 Central Adoption Resource Authority
69 Steering Committee of Authority
70 Powers of Authority
71 Annual Report of Authority
72 Grants by Central Government
73 Accounts and audit of Authority


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